Thursday, October 27, 2011

Practice of management in Agriculture

     “Farm Practice” account for 80% of the total results obtained. Other factors like Quality of Plants, Nature etc. account for 20% of total results.  If form practices are proper and scientific, then the bad effects of adverse factors are reduced and maximum returns are obtained from favorable factors. Hence the farm practice should be well defined, designed on Scientific Principles. It should be developed with resolution and utmost care. Presently in most of the farms, farm practices are influenced by non-scientific factors and hence they should be upgraded. Diffuser Technology is a well-defined farm practice, assuring the adaptor (of the technology) the best results from available resources.

     Diffuser Technology means applying scientific reasoning to fruit production, It has introduced many new concepts, for want of which concepts our agriculture is trailing behind the world scenario. The application of these concepts should have been made long back but these remained neglected for want of proper device and holistic thinking and approach.
     Diffuser Technology is application of scientific principles developed by many agri scientists during last few decades.
     The Diffuser Technology provides more sensitive, intensive and scientific farm practices which lead to better quality and more quantity production at lesser cost. This technology is a breakthrough for fruit grower as it ensures more and assured profits as well as it relives him from various problems such as shortage of water, Temperature variations, poor quality of soil, soil ill health, loss of sustainability etc.
     Diffuser Technology means proper combination of management and agricultural science principles in standardized farm practice. The technology can be used for 5-10 plants as well as for thousands of plants, rich or poor are no bar for application of this technology.

     Some of the principles employed, in diffuser technology are listed below.

1.         Production targets based on
 canopy area.
2.         Nutrition support programme for targeted production.
3.         Sub-surface  fertigation.
4.         Integrated water - nutrition management.
5.         Law of minimum i.e. supply of 13 elements in right combination.
6.         Zero defect production/total quality management in agriculture.
7.         Attaining maximum fertilizer-use efficiency.
8.         Fertilizer dosing in PPM with maximum splits.
9.         Nutrition uptake management.
10.       Optimum root wet area with minimum of water input.
11.       Productivity of water.
12.       Optimum growth conditions at Root-zone level.

     These principles are unique in nature and at present the traditional farm practice is not able to apply. The application of these principles totally changes the attitude of the grower and hence his life also.  The application of these technological principles in farm practice is briefly explained below.


     This management principle fixes the target of production per acre which is directly proportional to the canopy area of fruit trees in the farm, Technically, it is possible to produce 6–7 Kg. of Mango, Grapes or Pomegranates from one meter of leaf area (i.e. canopy area) e.g. from 2000 Sq. m. canopy area in an acre, 12 tons of fruits can be produced if proper steps are taken.  We define steps/standard farm practices under diffuser technology for getting targeted production. 

     Under traditional farm practice, such target concept does not exists. 

The production of fruits requires core support of definite quantity of 13 elements for cell formation. Fruits are formed out of 13 nutrients collected from/through roots. Three elements (Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon) are collected from air and water.  These three elements and water account for 98 to 99% of total weight of fruits and are abundantly available to the plant.  Availability of thirteen elements from soil through roots is the critical and limiting factor for production.  For one ton production of Grape, Pomegranate and Mango, 10, 15 and 21 Kg. of pure elements (Thirteen elements) are required.  For targeted production of 12 Tons, as mentioned earlier, 120, 180 and 252 kg. of nutrients should be absorbed by the plants (in one acre). The absorption should be done since bearing to pre-harvesting period.  This uptake during the particular period is done in a controlled manner by diffuser technology practices.
       In traditional way of harvesting such concept and control does not exists. 


     Fertigation means Irrigation and fertilization. Sub-surface Fertigation means fertigation below ground level. In diffuser technology, water and fertilizers are applied simultaneously and that too 10 cm below ground level i.e. at the root zone.
     The water requirement of plant is equal to its transpiration requirement.  It is 15% of pan evaporation rate.  (PER) It amounts to 2 Liter/day/Sq. meter canopy area.  (For this requirement  PER is assumed at 12 mm) The water requirements, if irrigated on ground, (i.e. with present practice) will be for evaporation + transpiration.  This comes out to 8 to 10 liters per day per sq. m. Canopy area (PER assumed at 12 mm) while under diffuser technology, the water requirement will be only 2 liters/day/sq. m. canopy area, as there is no evaporation loss, water being given below surface.  For drip system, water requirement per acre per season is 35 lakh liters, while for diffuser system it is only 10 lakh liters.  Sub-surface fertigation will be the order of the day and irrigation on the ground is getting obsolete Diffuser Technology is the best sub-surface fertigation system in Indian conditions.


     The plant/fruit growth is directly proportional to nutrients absorbed by plant. 70 to 100 gm. biomass growth is obtained per one gram nutrients absorption. Nutrients are absorbed through water, taken in to fulfill transpiration requirement of the plant.  On an average, the plant absorbs 2 liters of water per sq. m. leaf area (canopy) per day. Hence the quantity of nutrients absorbed is determined by the concentration level of nutrients in water at the root zone. In case of diffuser technology, water and nutrients are fed together at the root zone level in a predetermined suitable proportion so as to get maximum advantage of transpiration led absorption of water.

            There are many aspects of this integrated management principle and these will be discussed subsequently.


     The principle of law of minimum is well known in agriculture discipline but is most neglected in actual practice.   Lop - sided feeding of nutrients leads to low quality of produce, loss of soil fertility and soil health & causes various deceases. Hence in case of diffuser technology all the thirteen elements (Major, medium, and micro) are supplied in a right combination with every application of water at root zone level. This leads to proper metabolism and formation of healthy cells. Due to the proper balancing of nutrients, the quality of fruits improves in respect of size, glaze and density.


     This principle is applied in advanced countries all over the world. Defects in produce develop due to defective process, so improve the process and you will gate better quality of produce.  For this purpose six-sigma theory is applied. It is very difficult to apply this principle in agriculture without diffuser technology. We have developed a methodology for total quality management and gradually improving on it.  The crop specific element content of best quality fruit is known.  On the basis of this data, we have designed crop/stage specific nutrition application programmes.  These programmes are supplied to Diffuser users free of cost.

     Chemical fertilizers are in short supply and becoming costlier also.  In present traditional farm practice, the efficiency of fertilizer – use is 30-35% only, because excess water is used and fertilizer dose is not properly split.  Also application of fertilizer is not at proper place.

In case of diffuser technology, fertilizers sufficient for just two days are applied at a time, below ground level (at the root zone) with minimum quantity (just sufficient for transpiration) of water.  This leads to maximum absorption of fertilizers and it is experienced that with less fertilizer use, more production is obtained.  The strategy of two days dosing with need based minimum water, maintains soil free from excessive deposition and salting of fertilizers and after harvesting, when fertilizer addition is stopped.  Soil becomes free of fertilizers.


In case of diffuser technology based farm practices, the fertilizer dosing is measured in PPM and not in kg./bags.  The term PPM (parts per million) expresses water and nutrients together. It is a measure of proportion of two different inputs i.e. water and nutrients.  The absorption of nutrients by roots is the effect of osmosis process.  Due to osmotic pressure, low-density liquid is absorbed by high-density liquid.  In this case soil-water (water around roots) and sap inside root cells are two liquids with 
different densities, of which sap contains nutrients at about 1500 to 2000 PPM. If the soil water contains elements at 200 to 400 PPM, (density lower than sap) the elements are easily absorbed. In case of diffuser technology, required quantity of 13 elements is calculated, depending on production target and fruit harvesting nutrient requirement and the same is splited in 45 to 60 splits and fed at root zone level along-with need based water during the bearing to harvesting period. While calculating the dosing of nutrients, principles like law of minimum, zero defect production are applied.  This practice ensures the targeted production with minimum of water and nutrients input and best quality of produce.

     In case of traditional farm practice, water and nutrients are pored in the farm but how much is absorbed by the plants is not known.
            In case of diffuser technology, root zone conditions are created in such a way that it becomes inevitable for the plant to absorb whatever is put in at root zone level.  Small doses of nutrition, transpiration need based water, 50% root wet area, sub-surface fertigation at right location, use of capillary action for water distribution in soil etc. are some of the principles that force the uptake and 90 % efficiency of fertilizer use is attained as compared to 30-35% in traditional farming.


     The present farm practice is silent on the area of roots that should be wetted for optimum use of daylight/solar radiation. The continuous flow of transpiration has a two-fold contribution in production of biomass. (1) Due to continuous transpiration the temperature of leaves is maintained at 30oC.  At this leaf temperature, the stoma remains open and photosynthesis activity, fixation of carbon etc. continues. (2) Due to continuous transpiration, maximum uptake of water per sq. m. (canopy area) per day takes place and along with the absorbed water maximum quantity of is elements is also absorbed. From each gram of absorbed elements, 100 gm. of biomass is produced.

     Thus due to unobstructed transpiration, biomass generation is attained to the maximum extent.

     At noontime, the transpiration rate is highest. Maximum water and elements are absorbed and biomass generated is above average.  Reciprocally, if there is water stress during noontime, photosynthesis / carbon fixation comes to standstill and biomass generation is also stopped.  If this is for 10% period of day (in the noon) biomass generation is dropped down by 25%. The transpiration requirement is at the peak level during noontime.  To make up said demand, root wet area should be maintained at 50% of the total root end area.  The hairy roots are distributed along the periphery of canopy up to 30 cm below ground level. In diffuser technology, the irrigation is subsurface and 50% root wet area is created with only 2 liters of water input per sq. m. canopy per day.  This limited water is totally absorbed along with all elements.

     This is the most important principle, every agriculturist should be aware of, because in the agriculture  the productivity of all other inputs e.g. fertilizer, labour, land etc. is directly related with the productivity of water.  Unfortunately nobody in Agriculture field is aware of this principle and hence there is poverty.  We have developed certain systems and measures to attain the productivity of water at the highest level and we extend these systems to ordinary farmers to attain it.  By adopting diffuser technology, one cubic meter (1000 liters) of water earns Rs. 150 to 200 (In Drip system Rs. 30 to 40 are earned per cu. m. of water).  The variable cost of storing the water in plastic lined tank is only Rs. 10 per cu. m., which is affordable as the generation is Rs. 150 to 200 per cu. meter.    Thus the productivity of water concept solves the water problem as well as improves the productivity of all inputs and reduces per capita cost of every input.
            Plant/fruit growth is the manifestation of elements absorbed by the plant.  Elements are absorbed through roots.  The absorption of elements is related with the conditions prevailing at root zone of plants. Hence for maximum possible uptake of nutrient, maintaining optimum growth conditions at root zone level of plant is the sure way of success.
The hairy white roots absorb elements and water through their ends.  The natural position of root ends is at perpendicularly below the canopy boundary and up to 30 cm below the ground level.  Hence, optimum growth conditions are created with resolution & special efforts at canopy periphery of plant, by farm practice based on Diffuser technology.
There are many variables of the optimum growth condition, which are taken care  of  in our  farm practices. The variables are (1) The right proportion of organic matter in the soil (2) Root wet area up to 30 cm depth and 50% of canopy periphery (3) Dry soil mulching of upper 10 cm layer i.e. applying water below 10 cm. depth (4) Moisture level of soil should be maintained at around 50% of field capacity (5) Presence of 13 elements (dissolved in water )in right combination / proportion and suitable intensity level (PPM) so as to fulfill the nutrients – needs of  (canopy area based) targeted production.

All these conditions are created with resolution at root zone level and these conditions take care of proper soil temperature, proper density of soil, proper soil ph, non toxic condition for bacteria & verms, constant supply of oxygen to the roots and simultaneous removal of toxic gases, like CO2 from the root zone, sufficient supply of water to leaves necessary during the peak transpiration at noon time.

The plant behavior is controlled and directed to the required direction by controlling the root zone condition of plant and best results are obtained with minimum of inputs.  Proper root zone management is the crux of ideal farm practice, which factor is generally neglected in traditional system; on the other hand it is the specialization area of Diffuser Technology that yields fascinating results.

Saturday, May 14, 2011


Water is important to the growth and survival of plants. Water comprises 70 to 85 percent of the fresh weight of most turfgrasses and landscape plants. It also functions as a transport medium and cooling mechanism and is involved in many biochemical reactions in plants. As water is lost from evapotranspiration (ET) and leaching, you must apply more water to maintain a constant supply to turfgrass and plants. Landscapes receive water from two sources: precipitation and irrigation. Some water moves upward through the soil profile to replenish water losses, but this process is normally too slow to meet turf needs. The best way to achieve a constant, reliable supply of water is to irrigate.

An in-ground, automated irrigation system makes life much easier for anyone who irrigates. Unfortunately, the convenience of time-clock irrigation promotes poor watering practices. Often, a technician sets the time clock at installation, and it remains at that setting thereafter. As a result, the automated cycle doesn’t accommodate the landscape’s actual water needs.
Plant water requirements vary, depending on the species, environmental conditions and cultural practices. These factors, which include relative humidity, day length, temperature, wind speed, mowing height and fertilization, influence ET.

Transpiration is the process by which turf and other plants absorb water from the soil and transport it from roots to leaves to the atmosphere. By monitoring transpired water and water evaporated from the soil, you have a fairly good indicator of how much water plants use each day.

Because both environmental and cultural factors influence ET, water use is never constant. For example, in a study at Kansas State University, tall fescue ET ranged from 0.13 to 0.42 inches per day between July and August. This variability of turf ET emphasizes the importance of adjusting irrigation amounts to meet current demand. It also demonstrates that you can save water and improve irrigation efficiency by monitoring turf water use.

You should only irrigate your landscape when it needs it. Ideally, you should irrigate when the first symptoms of wilt appear. Wilt is the visible loss of turgidity expressed by drooping, folding or rolling of leaves. You can first detect wilt in turfgrass by a blue-green or slate-colored appearance. “Foot printing” or loss of elasticity of turf is another visual symptom of wilt. Allowing turf to proceed through the wilting stage and into a more severely stressed condition may result in summer dormancy or, in extreme cases, turf death.

Irrigating at the onset of wilt may not be practical in all cases, because landscapes may be in use during the day and cannot be irrigated without interrupting use. In such cases, you must use other methods to predict water need, for example the consumptive-use method or soil-moisture measurements. The consumptive-use method estimates ET from a turf stand (see boxed information, “Determining landscape-irrigation requirements,” page 64, for specifics on landscape-plant water needs). It is based on water losses from an evaporation pan. However, for this method to be effective, you must make preliminary calibration of evaporation-pan results with actual turf wilting.

Some moisture measurements involve either direct measure of soil moisture through oven drying and weighing or indirect methods that measure the soil-moisture tension. The gravimetric method of determining soil-water content involves measuring soil’s weight loss after heating it in a warm oven for 24 hours. Follow this procedure for determining weight by the gravimetric method:

Take a soil sample from the turf area at the onset of wilting and place it immediately in a sealed moisture-proof jar.
Weigh the moisture tin in which you’ll be placing the soil sample and record its weight.
Fill the moisture tin about three-quarters full of soil. Weigh it and record the weight.
Label the sample with a piece of paper.
Place the sample in a 220°F oven for 24 hours.
Remove from the oven, cool, remove the paper label and reweigh the dried sample. Record this weight. Subtract the weight of the moisture tin from the actual wet and dry weights of the soil.
Calculate the percent of water content:

weight loss after drying X 100
weight of oven-dried soil
= % water content
After a thorough rain or irrigation on the area from which you took your first sample, wait a set period (12 hours if the area has sandy soil and 24 hours if the area has clay soil). Then take new samples of soil from this same area. Repeat Steps 1 through 7 with these new samples. They will indicate the water content at field capacity.
Calculate the irrigation point using the following formula
[(Percent water content at field capacity ÷ 2
percent water content at wilting point)]
Irrigate when the soil-moisture content reaches the irrigation point.

You can irrigate your landscape at any time during the day. However, the ideal time is in the early hours of the day. At this time, wind is minimal, and you reduce water losses. Also, irrigating at this time gives water a better chance to infiltrate into the soil before it is lost to evaporation.

Watering at night or in the evening is a second choice to morning irrigation. Water loss to evaporation can be minimized at this time, but the moisture remaining on plant leaves overnight creates a condition conducive to disease development. Nevertheless, in some cases, such as on golf courses, night irrigation may be the only way in which you can practically water turf or a landscape without interrupting its use. Night irrigation is especially practical with automatic irrigation systems.

Daytime is the least preferable time to irrigate. Evaporative losses are high, and wind also may be during the day. Turf temperature normally reaches a peak at 2 p.m. A light application of water (syringing) at this time will lower turf temperature and prevent wilting. However, keep in mind that syringing is not intended to provide water to turf roots. Instead, it is simply meant to cool turf by evaporating water.

The rate of irrigation always should be lower than the rate of infiltration. Allowing irrigation rate to exceed the infiltration rate results in water runoff. Slope also can influence runoff, because a steep slope encourages runoff. In addition, soil factors such as texture, structure and, perhaps, thatch influence infiltration rate.

Many tools are available to help you specifically determine your irrigation rate. They include soil-moisture monitors, weather stations and using ET with turfgrass coefficients. Consider each:

Moisture sensors. These can provide the following benefits:

Reduce water use
Save money because of lower water use
Reduce leaching fertilizers past the root zone
Reduce runoff
Minimize damage to pavement, sidewalks and buildings
Reduce client/customer complaints of over-watering while it’s raining
Decrease drainage problems
Provide lower maintenance expenses.
Many different types of soil-moisture sensors are used in landscaping. The most common are tensiometers, solid-state tensiometers, electrical-resistance blocks and point-contact blocks. Tensiometers measure the matrix potential or capillary tension in the soil. This is similar to the force a root must exert to take water from the soil.

Electrical-resistance blocks measure the matrix potential indirectly. They consist of electrodes that are embedded in gypsum or plastics. As moisture content increases between the electrodes, electrical resistance decreases. You can calibrate electrical-resistance measurements to matrix potential for the soil in question. Point-contact blocks have many electrodes that measure moisture contact at each point.

You can control residential and small commercial sites with one or two simple sensors or one sensor at each automatic-control valve. You should be able to adjust these sensors at the control valve or the automatic controller.

Large commercial sites, such as parks and highways, require more sophisticated sensor systems. These systems should meet the following criteria:

Sensors are adjustable from the automatic-controller location
The system provides manual or automatic sensor override
The system should need little sensor maintenance
Equipment can withstand freezing soils (if required)
Sensors are corrosion resistant.
Today, you can use soil-moisture sensors with several central/satellite control systems. It is even possible to add some sensors to your existing irrigation system with little additional wiring. (See Figure 1, above left, for information on installing a moisture sensor.)

Weather stations. A weather station can provide you with the climatic parameters you need to calculate ET. The most common ET-rate equations in landscape irrigation are Penman and Penman-Monteith. Both of these equations originally were calibrated for clipped grasses. They are based on 1-day’s data. Because turf’s root zone is so shallow—and hold-over moisture insignificant—1 day is a critical time element.

Nevertheless, keep in mind that the following factors all can affect whatever equation you use:

The area’s historical climatic data
The time for which you need ET rates
Your location
Your plant type and its condition.
Specifically, when using the Penman equation, you must have climatic information on:

Maximum and minimum temperatures (°Celsius)
Relative humidity (percentage)
Wind movement (kilometers per hour)
Net radiation (calories per square inch).
To get this information, you must have a data logger. This equipment—basically a programmable computer—is located on the pedestal of the weather station. It queries sensors, storing the data for later retrieval. These sensors include:

Anemometer to measure wind speed
Tipping-bucket rain gauge to measure rainfall
Pyranometer, which monitors solar radiation
Temperature probe, which tests for maximum and minimum temperatures
RH probe, for relative humidity.
Other factors you may find useful to monitor include:

Soil temperature
Wind direction
Soil moisture
Water quality
Pump pressure
Pump flow
Pump power.
You can provide power for your station from a 110-volt AC source. Or you can use solar power or a 12-volt DC wet-cell battery.

Locate your weather station away from obstructions, such as buildings or trees. Primarily, don’t let the irrigation system throw water on it, and don’t shade it from the sun or shield it from the wind (see Figure 2, page 57).

ET and turfgrass coefficients. As mentioned previously, by monitoring transpired water and water evaporated from soil, you have a fairly good indicator of how much water turf uses each day: ET. Several tools are available available to help you monitor turf’s water use: atmometers and empirical models.

√ Atmometers. An atmometer is any tool used to measure the evaporating capacity of air. The most well-known example of an atmometer is the evaporation pan. Daily measurements of evaporation from the pan are converted to turf ET with a crop coefficient, or multiplier: pan evaporation x crop coefficient = turf ET. Traditionally, the evaporation-pan crop coefficient for cool-season grasses is about 0.80, while that for warm-season grasses is 0.60. In other words, if 1 inch of water evaporates from a pan, you should irrigate a cool-season turf with 0.80 inch of water and a warm-season turf with 0.60 inch of water. √ Empirical models. These models are equations that incorporate climatic data, such as temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, etc., to generate a predicted ET value. Examples of some commonly used equations are the Penman, Penman-Monteith and Jensen-Haise. Modern irrigation systems typically use a weather station and accompanying software that allow the operator to estimate ET using an empirical model.

Irrigation systems are meant to uniformly distribute water to an area at a rate that does not exceed the infiltration rate of the soil. An irrigation system is comprised of sprinkler heads, pipes, valves and a pump or city water source. When designing an irrigation system, you should give consideration to the compatibility of all components. Pipe size and length, valve size, and the size and number of sprinklers comprising an irrigation system must be compatible with the pumping system. All components of the system are meant to operate at specified flow rates and pressure, and their use beyond pressure and flow limits will result in unsatisfactory performance.

Irrigation systems vary in complexity and cost. Homeowners use simpler systems. They include flexible hoses with movable sprinkler heads, which may be supplied with water from a municipal source. More complex systems include fixed irrigation systems, which may be completely automated. Aside from initial cost, in planning an irrigation system, you should consider practical management of the system to supply water when it is needed. Turf managed under high intensity requires a significant amount of manpower to meet turfgrass requirements if you use a manual irrigation system, whereas automatic irrigation systems can save considerable manpower for other tasks.

Three major sprinkler-head types are used for turf irrigation: oscillating, rotary and spray.

Oscillating or wave-type sprinklers. Residential customers are the primary users of these types. They are best suited to relatively small areas. Water is delivered through holes in an oscillating arm. Water delivery rate is slow with these types of sprinklers, and they are readily affected by wind.

Rotary or impact-driven sprinklers. These are the most widely used heads on professional turf because they are best-suited for large turf areas. Coverages range from 40 to 200 feet in diameter. Rotary sprinklers deliver water in one or more streams and rotate by means of hydraulically driven gears or by impact. Impact-driven sprinklers rely on the power of the water stream to impact a spring-loaded arm and move the sprinkler head. Repeated impact drives the spring-loaded arm and moves the head in an entire circle. Part-circle impact heads are also available, as well as adjustable heads. Rotary sprinkler heads deliver the greatest amount of water nearest the water source, and the amount of water delivered diminishes as the application approaches its periphery. When you position heads properly to provide sufficient overlap, you can achieve relatively uniform coverage. Wind, however, will distort the pattern of rotary sprinkler heads especially with heads covering a large area. The larger the water stream’s coverage area, the more susceptible the stream is to wind. Nevertheless, rotary sprinklers are the most economical and most efficient on large areas.

Spray-type sprinkler heads. Also referred to as fixed heads, landscapers use these most frequently on relatively small turf areas. The area of coverage is between 16 and 24 feet for a single head. You’d typically space heads 10 to 24 feet apart to provide overlap and uniform coverage. In contrast to rotary sprinklers, spray heads discharge water in all directions at once. The nozzle orifice of this type of sprinkler head is designed to provide a predetermined radius of coverage and flow at a specified pressure.

Adjustable and part-circle fixed heads also are available. Spray-type heads are least affected by wind. These heads also apply water at a rapid rate and may not be suitable on heavily compacted soils. In addition, the area covered by individual spray heads is relatively small, thus necessitating more sprinkler heads to cover an area in comparison to rotary sprinklers.

From the previous discussion about sprinkler-head characteristics, it is evident that sprinkler heads differ in distribution pattern, area of coverage and response to wind. The ultimate goal in designing a sprinkler system is to achieve uniform water distribution. Because the amount of water applied per unit area decreases with distance from the sprinkler head, it is important to overlap coverage among adjacent sprinklers. Wind also may influence the spray pattern, and you must take it into consideration when determining spacing.

Spacing is generally referred to in terms of a percentage of the wetted area.

Percent spacing = Distance between sprinklers x 100
Wetted diameter of sprinklers
Percent overlap = 100 - percent spacing

For example: 70 percent spacing = 30 percent overlap of spray patterns.

70 percent spacing = 42 ft x 100
60 ft
30 percent overlap = 100 - 70

You can use several different approaches to spacing in designing an irrigation system for uniform coverage. Irrigating with a multiple-row system is more preferable than with a single row of heads, because distribution is more uniform. Multiple-row system designs include square-spaced and triangular-spaced heads. Generally, square-spaced heads should have 50-percent spacing, and triangular-spaced heads should have 60- to 70-percent spacing.

Correct irrigation-head placement starts by understanding the available operating pressure at the site and understanding irrigation-distribution patterns. Manufacturers design irrigation heads to work within certain pressure ranges. Incorrect pressure has a direct effect on how evenly and how far the irrigation system distributes the water. A pressure variation of only 5 psi can change the coverage radius of an irrigation head by 1 to 2 feet. Therefore, it is critical to make sure the pressure at the irrigation head is what the designer intended it to be.

What happens when you operate an irrigation head above the suggested pressure? You distort the distribution pattern and cause excessive wind drift and overspray. As mentioned, you also reduce the effective throw of that head (see Figure 3, page 58). Operating a head below the manufacturer’s pressure recommendations also distorts the pattern, leaving turf areas with donut-shaped dry spots. If necessary, you may need to adjust flow controls or install pressure-compensating devices to achieve the proper pressure.

Another consideration is the irrigation-head’s distribution pattern. Irrigation distribution patterns influence spacing patterns, wind effects and system uniformity. Manufacturers, however, do not create all heads equally or with the same distribution pattern. You can produce different distribution uniformities for the same system, in fact, simply by selecting a different head—even when manufacturers claim the same radius, gpm and precipitation rate for that head. When that happens, the head with low distribution uniformity does not spread water evenly. This results in your running the irrigation system longer to make up for weak areas in the coverage. This means more water, higher water bills and saturated spots in areas with the heaviest coverage. Therefore, it is always a good idea to select irrigation heads with the most appropriate distribution patterns for a given application and ones with high uniformities.

A good way to evaluate irrigation uniformity during the design phase is with a computer program called SPACE (Sprinkler Profile And Coverage Evaluation). This program uses densograms to model irrigation-head performance using data collected by the Center for Irrigation Technology from single-leg or full-grid catchment- pattern tests. The program produces irrigation profiles and densograms for single heads and allows you to check uniformities for various square or triangular spacing patterns. A program called Hyper-SPACE allows you to evaluate almost any type of irrigation head layout even if the spacing is not uniform. (To obtain a copy of the SPACE or Hyper-SPACE software programs, contact the Center for Irrigation Technology, California State University, 5370 N. Chestnut Ave., Fresno, CA 93740-0018, 209/278-2066.)

The rule of thumb in irrigation-head spacing is head-to-head spacing. You use this rule to account for wind effects during irrigation. Manufacturers’ recommended spacing typically starts at 60 or 65 percent of the irrigation diameter. This drops to about 50 percent (head-to-head) for conditions where you might expect the wind to exceed 4 to 8 mph. For some irrigation-head types, you must modify this spacing higher or lower to achieve better distribution uniformities and avoid excessively wet or dry patches.

An important consideration is that different heads operated under the same conditions produce different uniformities. Some manufacturers design irrigation nozzles that produce a higher degree of uniformity than others do. As the industry places more emphasis on water conservation, it will become more important to select irrigation heads that produce the highest degree of uniformity possible for a particular application. For now, try and find out as much as you can about the irrigation heads with which you work and what their individual strengths and weaknesses are.

Once you select the correct irrigation head, you need to consider proper placement. Accurate field staking is the single biggest error in the design or installation of a new irrigation system. Yet, maintaining consistent spacing is the only way to maintain a high degree of uniformity. After all, spacing that varies by as little as 1 foot (less than 7 percent) on a 15-foot radius head will change the average precipitation rate between heads by more than 20 percent (see Figure 4, left).

If you’ve never installed an irrigation system, don’t be unsettled by the myriad details involved. To install a system successfully and within budget does require attention to specifics—from design to maintenance. However, with the basic facts at hand, you’ll have a starting point from which you can ask more detailed questions.

Obviously, the most basic question you first must ask is, “Where will the water come from?” Then you can move on to consider the more complicated aspects. These include system, design, pipe considerations, system options, component selection and the as-built drawing’s importance.

One of the first aspects to consider when installing an irrigation system is the water source. It can be from a municipal water supply, a well or a pond.

If a municipality provides the water, it is important to know the size of the water service and the pressure delivered to the site. Also you should check with the water purveyor for local codes or regulations.

If tapping into a main line in the street, your local water utility can provide the information needed.

Before ordering materials for the irrigation system, you should verify the actual water pressure to make sure it matches the rate the water company says it does.

You can determine the pressure on a small line with a simple gauge that measures the static pressure at a particular point in the water supply line. On large projects, it may be wise to do a flow test that tells you about gallons per minute and the drop in pressure over the landscape.

If you are installing a system on a golf course, you probably will need to construct several water retention areas or ponds as your water source. The size of these ponds usually is determined by the course’s irrigation requirements during the months of highest water consumption, as well as the time constraints of the site during those months. An example of time constraints might be just how long the system can be on without interfering with players on a golf course.

If you are installing a system on a residential site, you’ll most likely tap into the homeowner’s water supply. In most cases, doing so is fairly routine. You probably won’t even need a pump to get the appropriate water pressure. But to be sure, you’ll want to determine the demand for water and the amount of water and pressure available. For example, if the area is hilly—even on a small residential site—you may need a pump to supplement pressure coming into the site to serve the upper areas requiring irrigation.

Before you can begin designing the system, you must take several factors into consideration. Think about types of plantings, sun exposure, slope, soil type, average rainfall in the area and design of the landscape itself.

Then you can choose the type of pipe—a relatively easy task because few choices are available. Of the two main options, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe is typically preferred over polyethylene (poly) tubing because of its strength and durability, especially on pressurized lines.

In warmer climates, such as California, installers use PVC for both main and lateral lines. In cooler climates where soil is subject to quick-freezing conditions, however, PVC is used for main lines and poly for the lateral ones, at least in residential and small commercial systems. The reason for this: Even though PVC is stronger, it also is more rigid. Thus, it is less flexible than poly tubing and cracks more easily.

Laying pipes down deep also can help avoid problems in cold weather. An irrigation consultant can give you specific guidelines on how deep to lay piping in your area of the country and which type of piping to use. Use drain valves to empty water from pipes as another means of avoiding freeze damage.

Installing your piping is another main consideration. To install polyethylene pipe, you’ll probably want to use a vibratory plow, also called a line-puller or drop-cable plow. If using a different piping material—such as PVC—which might not be strong enough to withstand being pulled through the soil, or if the site is extra hilly, another type of trenching machine may be more appropriate.

If the soil on a site is particularly rocky, placing sand around the pipe can prevent rocks and other sharp objects from puncturing the pipe. This is usually not a problem for most installers however.


Often, irrigation consultants recommend that landscape contractors use a combination of drip irrigation and spray heads or rotors to get water to root systems. For example, on large turf areas, it usually is most cost effective to use large, gear-driven spray heads on 40-foot spacings. Then, on smaller turf areas, use pop-up spray heads. Ornamental beds are where drip-irrigation systems are usually most effective. You also will want to use them in arid areas with water restrictions.

For the very reason that drip-irrigation systems are not out in the open, they can present problems not encountered when using other irrigation systems. Too often, once landscape contractors have installed a system, home owners or maintenance personnel forget about the systems. After all, if a sprinkler head acts up, the problem is obvious. If a drip irrigation system gets clogged or a valve breaks, however, you can’t readily see it. Thus people don’t discover problems until plants begin to die. However, as long as you properly maintain and regularly inspect these systems, you probably will avoid major problems.

Picking the proper sprinklers, valves and controllers can be tricky. Many manufacturers offer irrigation components; not all of them are necessarily equal. One manufacturer may make good spray heads, but its valves or rotors may not be as good as another company’s and vice versa.

How can you make comparisons? Increasing numbers of manufacturers now provide distribution curves for each sprinkler they offer. These distribution curves chart how systems behave according to varying factors. For example, according to a manufacturer’s distribution curve, a given sprinkler with a certain nozzle will provide different coverage at 50 pounds of pressure than it will at 70 pounds.

A client or owner may not notice differences in coverage most of the time. You can be sure, however, that during a drought year when irrigation uniformity is crucial, a client or manager will notice brown spots where turf did not receive adequate irrigation. Poor irrigation system design also will show up during periods of drought. Other system components you need to consider are valves, controllers and rain or moisture sensors:

Valve selection. Valves come in plastic or brass. Which one you choose will depend on your particular situation as well as the budget. If an owner requests you use metal valves, or for other reasons a system needs a longer-lasting valve, brass should be your choice. In other situations, plastic valves are used frequently because they are less expensive. Plus, every year, manufacturers improve the quality of these products. Controllers. Though some electro-mechanical controllers are still on the market today, most installers usually purchase solid-state controllers. Electro-mechanical controllers are easier to operate and fix, but they do not offer the flexibility and sophistication of solid-state models. However, solid-state controllers can be difficult to program and require a thorough reading of the manual. In fact, most maintenance calls concerning improperly working solid-state controllers often result from homeowners tinkering with the controllers after the contractors have programmed them.

Advantages to solid-state controllers include flexibility in programming multiple starts. Multiple starts allow you to coordinate infiltration rates that more closely match soil conditions. Electro-mechanical controllers, however, typically have only one or two programs available, and you cannot cycle zones as easily on these units.

Rain/moisture sensors. With increasing concern about water conservation, rain or moisture sensors are a must. In fact, some communities require them. Rain sensors are important because they prevent irrigation systems from operating while it rains. They are simple to operate, require little maintenance and typically cost less than $40. Moisture sensors do their job by determining the amount of moisture in the soil and running irrigation systems accordingly.

Though problems have plagued these sophisticated instruments in the past, newer solid-state models work quite well. Unfortunately, rain and moisture sensors are often the first component disconnected by a homeowner or maintenance person who believes the sensor does not operate properly. You can avoid this by showing homeowners or maintenance personnel how the system works.

Make sure that an as-built drawing of your irrigation system is completed during installation. Thousands of irrigation systems throughout the country are completed each year without any record of how they actually were installed. This can make future maintenance difficult.

Though you easily can find sprinkler heads as long as they operate, valves are more difficult to locate. This is especially true if they were not originally placed in valve boxes or if grass grows over a valve box. Other system components, such as quick-coupling valves, also may be difficult to locate without a reference.

Obviously, installing an irrigation system is more complicated than described here. If you are uncertain about some aspect, ask someone who knows. Irrigation-design consultants or component manufactures can answer questions about the design and installation of irrigation systems.


By mid-July, you know the price of your floral displays, especially if the maintenance crew has been hand-watering the beds because of an inadequate or non-existent irrigation system. All too often flower beds must rely on overspray from turf sprinklers or hand watering. Installing an irrigation system may be an attractive option.

Many choices are available for irrigating bedding. Sprays, rotors, impacts, micro-sprays, microspinners and drip may all be good ways to water your plantings, depending on the situation. Let’s look at some of their specific applications.

Some plants prefer to be washed and misted daily. Others do much better with little or no water on their leaves and blossoms. If you are considering a system that would provide over-the-top watering, be conscious of the possible disease problems associated with this type of irrigation (see section on diseases, Chapter 15).

How much water to apply depends on many factors. Usually, you find out quickly if water is inadequate for summer annuals. Plants will not thrive and provide good color if they are under drought stress. Spring-blooming bulbs typically obtain enough moisture from rain and snow but, in unusually dry seasons, supplemental water may be necessary, even in the fall or early spring. Remember, just because the bulb has not yet sent leaves above ground does not mean it isn’t growing—it still needs moisture.

Avoid overwatering your beds. Plants vary in their tolerance to soggy soils, but waterlogging is bound to bring problems. Unfortunately, you cannot prevent excessive rainfall. All you can do in this case is maximize drainage and hope for drier weather.

As a rule of thumb, flowers use about 25 percent less water than turf, depending on the varieties used and the mulch around the plants. This makes it appropriate to water flowers independently. However, it is often uneconomical to separately irrigate a small isolated flower bed from surrounding lawn or shrubs. Your judgment based on training and local knowledge will serve you in deciding what type of system to install. The best choice for one site might not be the appropriate method for another. Before making blanket recommendations, study each location’s needs. The key points to consider are:

Vandalism potential
Water cost
Water placement
Pressure and pressure variation
Initial cost
Maintenance cost
Durability of equipment
Longevity of system
Climatic conditions (especially wind)
Soil types
Armed with a site evaluation, you can identify potential systems that will work and price them to determine each system’s actual yearly cost. This will help make your final decision as objective as possible.

Rotors and impacts. There is a place for plastic rotors and plastic or brass impacts in large flower beds. These sprinklers water over the top of the canopy and should be on stationary risers or in pop-up canisters. Some rotors have 12-inch pop-ups available.

Sprays. Spray heads have been the most popular method of watering flowers through the years. These sprinklers have watering arcs of 15 to 360 degrees. However, manufacturers also make specialty rectangular patterns for areas such as parking strips and medians.

Plastic and brass spray heads are available in pop-up canisters that allow the nozzle to extend 2 to 12 inches above the body. You also can place them on factory risers or steel or PVC risers that add even more height.

In case a riser gets tipped over, a flex connection should be located underground to prevent it from breaking. Specialty flex risers also are available.

Microsprays and spinners. Microsprays and microspinners are low-cost options to sprays. You can get nozzles attached to individual pop-up canisters, placed in shrub adapters on risers or inserted in special risers with a small poly pipe attachment holding the micros.

Special risers that attach to poly pipe allow you to string poly pipe or drip tubing through the center of the bed. You can tee off of it with 1/4-inch poly tubing by using a barb adapter to run to each microhead location.

Most micros have a relatively flat watering pattern, which requires you to place them above the canopy in most situations. However, on tall plantings you might be able to use them under the canopy.

Even though running drip tubing with poly laterals to the individual heads is inexpensive and flexible, it only takes one big dog running through the bed to create havoc with whole system. The micro circuits also may require pressure regulation to 30 psi if static pressure is high at the delivery point. You could use pressure-regulating micros, remembering that the drip-tubing system is designed to run at no more than 50 psi.

Drip emitters. Drip emitters are a low-gallonage option with water point-applied to each plant or row of plants. The emitter exit points are critical to the operation of the system because there is no surface spreading of water. Sandy soils require narrow spacing (possibly as close as 6 inches) while clay soils allow liberal spacing (perhaps every 2 to 3 feet). If you have flowers that demand more or less water, emitter spacing and sizing can match that demand.

Low pressures of 15 to 30 psi tend to work best over a range of emitter types. The trick is to keep the pressure as constant as possible throughout each circuit. This will give uniform emission at each outlet. If pressure constancy is a problem, use pressure-compensating emitters. They cost more but they simplify your installations. Include a pressure regulator and filter (100 to 200 mesh) upstream of a drip circuit.

Drip tubing is used as the water carrier through the system. It can be left aboveground, placed under mulch or buried 2 to 3 inches below the surface. To reduce vandalism, place tubing under the mulch or ground. This will require bringing 1/2-inch poly tubing to the surface from each emitter, if you want to observe its operation. Observation is the only way (other than wilted plants) you have of knowing each emitter is working.

As stated earlier, the type of irrigation you use in your beds depends on numerous factors. As you can see, several effective options exist. In spite of the advantages of irrigation systems, hand watering still is widely practiced. The choice between hand watering and installing a system depends as much on available resources as it does on which is more effective. Both can produce satisfactory results, but installing a system is without question more labor-efficient. Remote sites or those with no water access may require watering from tanks.

Saturday, March 13, 2010

Storage and methods of serving mango...

Mango storage and serving methods

Storage -

Selecting the ripeness of mangos can be determined by either smelling or squeezing. A ripe mango will have a full, fruity aroma emitting from the stem end. Mangos can be considered ready to eat when slightly soft to the touch and yielding to gentle pressure, like a ripe peach. The best flavored fruit have a yellow tinge when ripe; however, color may be red, yellow, green, orange or any combination. The ideal post harvest storage temperature for mangos is 55ยบ F. When stored properly a mango should have a shelf life of 1 to 2 weeks. We have found that the best way to ripen a mango is at room temperature, on the kitchen counter and if you wish to accelerate the process place in a paper bag overnight (some folks place an apple with the mango in the bag to create more natural ethylene gas and further decrease the ripening time). Once ripened the mango can be refrigerated for a few days, but should be used shortly thereafter.
How to eat a mango??

Easy Slices

1. With a sharp thin-bladed knife cut off both ends of the fruit. 2. Place fruit on flat end and cut away peel from top to bottom along curvature of the fruit. 3. Cut fruit into slices by carving lengthwise along the pit.
With A Spoon

1. Use a sharp knife to slice off mango "cheeks" lengthwise. 2. Separate halves as shown, saving the tasty center. 3. Use spoon to scoop out fruit from halves. Enjoy, sweet center over the sink.

1. Start with the Mango "cheek"; Fillet off its pit lengthwise. 2. Cut 1/2" squares by scoring mango with a sharp knife. Do not cut through skin. 3. Turn mango half "inside out," separating cubes. Slice off squares with a knife.
On A Fork

1. Cut skin on top of mango crosswise. 2. Pull skin away from fruit in quarters or eighths. 3. Place mango on a fork and serve.

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Alphonso Mangoes - Galary

Mango Plantation

Mango (Mangifera indica) is the leading fruit crop of India and considered to be the king of fruits. Besides delicious taste, excellent flavour and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. The tree is hardy in nature and requires comparatively low maintenance costs.

Mango occupies 22% of the total under fruits comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tonnes. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are having the largest area under mango each with around 25% of the total area followed by Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Mango fruit is utilised at all stages of its development both in its immature and mature state. Raw fruits are used for making chutney, pickles and juices. The ripe fruits besides being used for desert are also utilised for preparing several products like squashes, syrups, nectars, jams and jellies. The mango kernel also contains 8-10 percent good quality fat which can be used for soap and also as a substitute for cola in confectionery.

Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are the important items of agri-exports from India. India's main export destinations for mango are UAE, Kuwait and other Middle East countries with a limited quantity being shipped to European market. Although, India is the largest mango producing country, accounting about 60% of world production, the export of fresh fruit is limited to Alphonso and Dashehari varieties. India's share in the world mango market is about 15 percent. Mango accounts for 40 percent of the total fruit exports from the country. There is good scope for increasing the area and productivity of mango in the country.

Climate :

Mango can be grown under both tropical and sub-tropical climate from sea level to 1400 m altitude, provided there is no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering period. Places with good rainfall and dry summer are ideal for mango cultivation. It is better to avoid areas with winds and cyclones which may cause flower and fruit shedding and breaking of branches.

Soil :

Mango comes up on a wide range of soils from alluvial to laterite provided they are deep (minimum 6') and well drained. It prefers slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.5)


Though there are nearly 1000 varieties of mango in India, only following varieties are grown in different states : Alphonso, Bangalora, Banganpalli, Bombai, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Fernandin, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog,Langra, Mankhurd, Mulgoa, Neelam, Samarbehist, Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Vanaraj and Zardalu.

Recently some mango hybrids have been released for cultivation by different institutes / universities. A brief introduction to such varieties is presented below :

Mallika - It is a cross between Neelam and Dashehari. Fruits are medium sized cadmium coloured with good quality, reported to be a regular bearer.

Amrapali - It is a cross between Dashehari and Neelam. It is a dwarf vigorous type with regular and late bearing variety. It yields on an average 16 t/ha and about 1600 plants can be accommodated in one hectare.

Mangeera : It is a cross between Rumani and Neelam. It is a semi vigorous type with a regular bearing habit. Fruits are medium sized with light yellow coloured skin, firm and fibreless flesh and sweet to taste.

Ratna : It is a cross between Neelam and Alphonso. It is a regular bearer and free from spongy tissue. Fruits are medium sized with excellent quality. Flesh is firm and fibreless, deep orange in colour with high TSS (19-21 Brix).

Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Banganapalli and Alphonso with regular bearing habit and dwarf in stature. About 400 plants can be accommodated per hectare. Fruits are large sized (500-700 gm) with attractive skin colour. Pulp is fibreless, sweet to taste (20-22 Brix). Pulp percentage is 73 and the fruits are free from spongy tissue.

Arka Puneet : It is a regular and prolific bearing hybrid of the cross between Alphonso and the Banganapalli. Fruits are medium sized (220-250 gm) with attractive skin colour, having red blush. Pulp is free from fibre, pulp percentage being 70 percent. Fruits are sweet to taste (20-22 Brix) with good keeping quality and free from spongy tissue. It is a good variety for processing also.

Arka Anmol : It is a semi-vigorous plant type from the cross between Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand. It is also a regular bearing and free from spongy tissues. Fruits ripen to uniform yellow colour. Keeping quality of the fruit is very good and it is suitable for export. It has got excellent sugar and acid blend and fruits weigh on an average about 300 g Pulp is orange in colour.

Propagation :

Farmers should always get vegetatively propagated, true to type plants from recognised nurseries. Inarching, veneer grafting, side grafting and epicotyl grafting are the popular methods of propagation in mango.

Planting : Land should be prepared by deep ploughing followed by harrowing and levelling with a gentle slope for good drainage. Spacing varies from 10 m x 10 m, in the dry zones where growth is less, to 12 m x 12 m, in heavy rainfall areas and rich soils where abundant vegetative growth occurs. New dwarf hybrids like Amrapali can be planted at closer spacing. Pits are filled with original soil mixed with 20-25 kg well rotten FYM, 2.5 kg single super phosphate and 1 kg muriate of potash.

One year old healthy, straight growing grafts from reliable sources can be planted at the centre of pits along with the ball of the earth intact during rainy season in such a way that the roots are not expanded and the graft union is above the ground level. Plants should be irrigated immediately after planting. In the initial one or two years, it is advisable to provide some shade to the young plants and also stake to make them grow straight.

Training and pruning :

About one meter from the base on the main trunk should be kept free from branching and the main stem can be allowed thereafter spaced at 20-25 cm apart in such a way that they grow in different directions. Branches which cross over/rub each other may be removed at pencil thickness.

Fertiliser Application :

In general, 170 gm urea, 110 gm single super phosphate and 115 gm muriate of potash per plant per year of the age from first to tenth year and thereafter 1.7 kg, 1.1 kg, and 1.15 kg respectively of these fertilisers per plant per year can be applied in two equal split doses (June-July and October). Foliar spray of 3% urea is recommended before flowering in sandy areas.

Irrigation :

Young plants are watered frequently for proper estalbishment. In case of grown up trees, irrigation at 10 to 15 days interval from fruit set to maturity is beneficial for improving yield. However, irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.

Inter cropping :

Inter crops such as vegetables, legumes, short duration and dwarf fruit crops like papaya, guava, peach, plum, etc. depending on the agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown. The water and nutrient requirements of the inter crops must be met separately.

Plant Protection :

Mango is prone to damages by a large number of pests, diseases and disorders. The recommended control measures for most important and common among them are briefed below :

Mango hopper : Two sprays (at panicles emergency and at pea size of fruits) of carbaryl (0.15%), monocrotophos (0.04%) or phosphamidan (0.05).

Mealy bug : Ploughing inter spaces in November and dusting 2% methyl parathion @200 g per tree near the trunk and fixing 20 cm wide 400 gauge polythene strips around the trunk with grease applied on the lower edge in January as prophylactic measures and two sprays of monocrotophos (0.04%) at 15 days interval as control are needed.

Powdery mildew : Two to three sprays of wettable sulphur (0.2%) or Kerathane (0.1%) at 10-15 days interval.

Anthracrose : Two sprays of Baristin (0.1%) at fortnight interval.

Malformation : One spray of 200 ppm NAA in October followed by deblossoming at bud burst stage in December - January.

Fruit drop : Regular irrigation during fruit development, timely and effective control of pests and diseases and spraying 20 ppm NAA at pea size of fruits.

Harvesting and yield :

Graft plants start bearing at the age of 3 - 4 years (10-20 fruits) to give optimum crop from 10-15th year which continues to increase upto the age of 40 years under good management.

Post Harvest Management :

Storage : Shelf life of mangoes being short (2 to 3 weeks) they are cooled as soon as possible to storage temperatue of 13 degree Celcius. A few varieties can withstand storage temperature of 10 degree Celcius. Steps involved in post harvest handling include preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletisation and transportation.

Packaging : Mangoes are generally packed in corrugated fibre board boxes 40 cm x 30 cm x 20cm in size. Fruits are packed in single layer 8 to 20 fruits per carton. The boxes should have sufficient number of air holes (about 8% of the surface area) to allow good ventillation.

Financial institutions have also formulated mango financing schemes in potential areas for expansion of area under mango. Individual mango development schemes with farm infrastructure facilities like well, pumpset, fencing and drip irrigation system etc. have also been considered.

Farm model for financing one hectare mango orchard is furnished in the Annexure I.

Unit Cost : The unit cost varies from state to state. The cost presented here is indicative only. The enterpreneurs and the bankers are requested to consult our Regional Offices for the latest information in this regard. The unit cost estimated for this model scheme is Rs.34400/- per ha capitalised upto the fifth year. The break-up deatails are given in Annexure I.

Financial Analysis : Results of financial analysis are indicated below :

NPW at 15% DF : Rs.59058 (+)

BCR at 15% DF : 2.34

IRR : 25.59%

Detailed analysis is presented in Annexure II.

Margin Money : The margin money assumed in this model scheme is 5% of the total financial outlay.

Interest Rate : Interest rate may be decided by the banks as per the guidelines of RBI.

Security : Banks may charge such security as permissible under RBI guidelines.

Repayment : The bank loan with interest is repayable within 14 years with 7 years grace period as shown in Annexure-III.

Annexure - I

Cost and Income from Mango Cultivation (Rs. per ha)

Spacing : 10m x 10m

Plant population : 100

Estimated cost:

Sr. No.










Planting material








Manures & Fertilisers








Plant protection








Sprayer & implements






















































Projected income:

Annexure III

Repayment Schedule (Mango Cultivation)

Total Financial Outlay(Rs) 34400

Margin money @ 5% of TFO((Rs.) 1720

Bank Loan(Rs.) 32680

(Amount in Rs.)

Repayment period is 14 years including 7 years grace period

(Source – NABARD)

Rs. 5500/- per 5 dozens. (+ transport)

Replacement guarantee .